Deep, winding, dark, slippery and uninhabitable; caves also remain
one of the least explored and documented places on earth. Caving is very
popular in France, Italy, Australia, UK, United States etc. hence most
of the caves currently documented are from Europe, Asia, North America,
and Australia. However, China which has the highest limestone deposits
in the world has very few explored caves. South America, Africa,
Antarctica have not been explored to its maximum. The exact number of
caves on Earth is still not known. Voronya Cave, Georgia the deepest
known cave in the world too has not been completely explored due to its
extremely inhospitable environment.
2. Amazon Rainforest
The Amazon rainforest contains 50% of the world’s rainforests. Its
biodiversity is extremely vast as it supports numerous types of plant
species and over 2,000 birds and mammals. Its climate and surroundings
have invoked the interests of many large expeditions for explorations;
however, its habitat has impeded thorough exploration of this region.
About 2.5 million insect species and 438,000 species of plants have been
officially documented with many left to be discovered.
No one knows what exactly lies beneath the icy terrain of Antarctica, with ice sheets 2 miles thick, it is also the coldest
place on earth. Scientists believe there is a network of rivers,
streams and stony land makes up its geography. Recently, the discovery
of sub-glacial lakes has opened a new chapter in Antarctica’s
exploration. There are possibilities of these lakes harboring life forms
which can be studied thus providing useful answers to scientists about
life in outer space. The ocean floor below the Antarctic has not yet
4. Mariana Trench & Deep Sea Ocean
The deepest and darkest place in the ocean is the 35,800 feet deep
Mariana Trench which is one of the least explored places on earth. Due
to its depth and pressure of up to 1,000 atmospheres, the deep is
completely hostile to humans. Even though scientific development has
increased man’s knowledge about deep sea life with discovery of many new
varieties of deep-sea creatures on the ocean floor only 2% of the ocean
floor has been explored, leaving a lot more to be discovered. A study
of the deep-ocean life will help scientists to understand deep-sea
creatures’ unique living patterns in harsh ocean conditions.
Though we know of all the deserts on earth, very few explorations
have been conducted as they have the least hospitable environments to
sustain human life. Explorations have almost always been marked with
tragedy and loss of life due to the harsh desert conditions. Scientists
and extreme adventurers venture into deserts for research and thrill.
6. Gangkhar Puensum, Bhutan
At an elevation of 7570 meters above sea level the Gangkhar Puensum
has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain on earth.
Four unsuccessful expeditions have been carried out till date. Currently
the government of Bhutan has prohibited climbing the mountain due to
religious beliefs, and is unlikely to be conquered in the near future.
7. Icecap; Greenland
81% of Greenland is covered in ice, and hence it is also the least
populated country in the world with major settlements situated on the
ice-free coast. Greenland has only been explored up to a point as the
climate and ice is unsuitable for human life. However, scientists carry
out expeditions for research and development purposes in the Northern
part of Greenland.
8. Northwest Siberia
Siberia constitutes almost all of Northern Asia, of which western
Siberia is covered in ice while eastern and central Siberia consists of
mountain ranges. Recently many research expeditions are conducted by
scientists and geologists to study its environment and ecology, as most
of the population is concentrated in western Siberia.
9. Mountains of Northern Colombia
The mountains of Northern Colombia have been unexplored until
recently when a group of scientists embarked on a biological expedition.
The Yariguies Mountains are home to a recently discovered species known as ‘Brush-Finch’.
10. Central Range, New Guinea
The central range of high mountainous forest area is has been under
protection due to its inclusion in New Guinea’s national parks. These
forests are support lifestyles varied species of birds and animals.
However, mining activities are posing threats to its fragile ecosystem.